Although abnormalities occur within dopaminergic systems, the precise cellular mechanism has not been identified. Morshed, MD, Ph D; Salina Parveen, MD, Ph D; Yukiko Kano, MD, Ph D; Marcos Mecadante, MD, Ph D; and Maria C. The diagnosis of a tic disorder is based solely on the historical features and a clinical examination confirming their presence and ruling out other conditions.

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top Tics are classified as either simple or complex.

Although TS can be a chronic condition with symptoms lasting a lifetime, most people with the condition experience their worst tic symptoms in their early teens, with improvement occurring in the late teens and continuing into adulthood.

There was no significant association between aggression and age of onset, personal or family history of psychiatric illness, EEG or neurological abnormalities, medication, distribution of tics, hyperactivity, or difficulty in concentration or attention as a child.

This syndrome, however, represents only one entity in a spectrum of disorders that have tics as their cardinal feature, ranging from a mild transient form to Tourettism.

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a chronic neuropsychiatric condition with onset in childhood characterized by the presence of motor and vocal tics that have been present for more than 1 year and that have changed in type, anatomic location, and severity over time.

From: to date, no single gene emerged as statistically significant. Complex tics are distinct, coordinated patterns of movements involving several muscle groups. Simple vocalizations might include repetitive throat-clearing, sniffing, or grunting sounds.Although obsessions, compulsions, and disorders related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are generally the most commonly described psychiatric symptoms in Tourette's, aggressive outbursts have also been described.Aggressive behavior was significantly associated with symptoms of being forced to touch and with copropraxia.In addition to tics, children with tic disorders often suffer from a variety of concomitant psychopathologies, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anger outbursts, learning difficulties, sleep abnormalities, and other behaviors.